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ANIMAL BEHAVIOR PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE AND OTHER CONDITIONS EXTENSIVE HERBIVORES

August 27, 2013 – 14:24

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ANIMAL BEHAVIOR PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE AND OTHER CONDITIONS EXTENSIVE HERBIVORES

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE AND OTHER CONDITIONS EXTENSIVE HERBIVORES

Temple Grandin
Department of Animal Science
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1171 Translation of Dr. Mark Gimenez-Zapiola

Introduction

Unfortunately, sedate methods of early twentieth century were being forgotten, and modern cowboys became increasingly rude (Wyman, 1946; Hough, 1958; Burri, 1968). There is an excellent review of the history of herding in Smith (1998). Today, progressive livestock producers know that reducing stress for your animals while improving productivity and safety.

Motivated by fear

Herbivore perception

Herbivores can see in depth (Lemmon and Patterson, 1964). Horses are sensitive to visual depth indicators on photographs (Keil, 1996). However, they may need to stop and head down to perceive the depth of the visual field. This may explain why braked sharply when they see shadows on the ground. Smith's observations (1998) indicate that cattle can not perceive objects located above the head line, unless they move. This author also argues that cattle due to their horizontal pupils can better perceive vertical lines than horizontal. Interestingly, most herbivores have horizontal pupils and most predators have round pupils. Research conducted on horses indicate a horizontal band having sensitivity in the retina, rather than a central fovea as humans (Saslow, 1999). This allows them to maintain visual control their environment as they shepherd.

Grazing animals have a highly sensitive optical system to motion and contrasts of light and shade. They are able to permanently display the horizon while grazing, but may have difficulty quickly focus on close objects, because their eye muscles are weak (Coulter and Schmidt, 1993). This would explain why they are startled when something moves suddenly in their environment.

Wild ungulates, domesticated cattle and horses respect a fence compact, and rarely will crowd against him or try to get through the race. To enclose wild ungulates in pens, you can use opaque plastic canvas (Fowler, 1995), and have been used portable corrals built with canvas to capture wild horses (Wyman, 1946; Amaral, 1977). When excited, cattle run over a cable or chain-link fence, because you can not see it. An opaque rail 30 cm wide, installed at eye level of the animal, or ribbons tied to the wire, allow animals to see the fence and avoid being squeezed against it (Ward, 1958). The beef also has a strong tendency to move from areas of low light to other better lit (Grandin, 1980a and 1980b). However, not approach blinding light.

Hearing

Lanier and others (1999a, 2000) and Lanier (1999) found that cattle that stirs in the auction ring has more propensity to recede or jump in response to sudden movements or intermittent sounds. This type of movements and sounds seem more frightening than constant stimuli. Talling and others (1998) found that pigs reacted more to intermittent sounds before a permanent sound. The treble increased heart rate of pigs over low sounds (Talling et al, 1996). Sudden movements trigger a greater impact on the amygdala (LeDoux, 1996), which is the part of the brain that controls fear in sentiment (LeDoux 1996, Rogan and LeDoux, 1996).

Source: www.grandin.com


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