Maine Animal Control Laws

Oyster Boner Mia echinococcosis

August 27, 2013 – 14:25

Animal Control

Oyster Boner Mia echinococcosis Disease code: DIS00150 Author: Huang Xutian Chinese disease name: Oyster Boner Mia echinococcosis English disease name: Infection with Bonamia ostreae Disease description: 1 pathogen:
Pathogen Type: protozoa (protozoa)
Pathogenic environment: water (marine)
Scientific name: Bonamia ostreae
Nonaggressive (and common name): tiny cell disease (Microcell disease), blood lymphocytes oyster disease (Haemocyte disease of flat oyster)
First discoverer: Pichot et al. (1979) (R)
OIE status: table column (Listed)
Pathogen Abstract: This pathogen parasites on discredited ball (haemocyte), the average diameter of 2 to parasites 3μm; parasite cytoplasm can divided into two different types, high quality fine basophilic gizzard of parasites were circular with a diameter 2 to 3μm, pale halo nucleus surrounded by a circle, while the low basophilic cytoplasm of the parasite, larger in diameter from 3 to 5μm. Parasites on peracetic acid (peracetic acid) 0.001 ~ 0.005% with sensitivity.
Zoonotic: No
2 pathogen Category:
Cercozoa door, Endomyxa Amon, Ascetosporea Gang, Haplosporida head, Haplosporidiidae families, Bonamia genus (Cavalier-Smith, 2003) (R)
Naming History: Bonamia ostreae, Bachere et al. 1982 (R)
Disease characteristics:
Mia insects generally oyster Bonaventura (B.ostreae) infection in the European oyster, do not show clinical symptoms, when the parasite proliferation to a certain number, it will produce discredited ball infiltration and leakage (diapedesis) phenomenon; When parasites of discredited after the ball burst, releasing the parasite to the hemolymph (haemolymph) room, and free of parasites between hemolymph re-invasion discredited the ball, so the cycle infection. Oysters are showing serious infections, poor growth, dysraphism, generally exhibit clinical symptoms of individuals are concentrated in the biennial oysters, and 0-1 years of its raw oysters infected with the disease, subject to six months lurking in up to a certain number of parasites amount before they can onset.
Disease patterns and Epidemiology:
The disease mainly affects the biennial European oyster (European oyster, Ostrea eduils), the other can still against Olympia oysters (Olympia oyster, O.lurida = O.conchaphila), Southern mud oyster (South mud oyster, O.angasi), New York Zealand oysters (New Zealand oyster, Ostrea luaria = Tiostrea lutaria), South Oyster (South American oyster, O.chilensis = Tiostrea chilensis), Argentinian oyster (Argentian flat oyster, O.puelchana), etc., if transplanted to infection domain incidence of infection by this pathogen can; But the European clam (European clam, Ruditapes decussatus), Philippines clams (Manila clam, Ruditapes phillippinarum), Mussels: Mytilus edulis, M.galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas) is are resistant to this pathogen. Benbingfasheng entire Euro-Atlantic coastal waters for shellfish countries, France, Spain, Holland, Italy, Ireland, the United Kingdom (excluding Scotland), Denmark, the United States (California, Maine, state of Washington), Canada. The disease is influenced by environmental factors such as water temperature between 12 to 20 ℃, will promote the proliferation of parasites to produce disease. But also because of parasites in the discredited ball, causing systemic infection, oysters to resist pathogens and exhaustion of energy, and finally individual because of hunger and exhaustion and death.
Although the life cycle of pathogens in vitro to oyster yet clear; but the level of cohabitation after infection by the disease infect adjacent healthy oyster oysters, or through the purification and separation of the parasite, may establish vaccination infection. In the development of the pathogen in the proliferative phase and the remaining endemic regions before, it is difficult to check out the pathogen; while showing clinical symptoms of the disease cycle of its oyster farming areas up to 3-5 months, especially in the northern hemisphere warm season from September to October, and Southern Hemisphere from January to April in mortality can reach peak.
Clinical symptoms and pathology:
Oyster tissue in the incidence of death, disease, visible yellow mottled male, while severe cases in the gills, mantle and digestive gland connective tissue produces perforated ulcer, these lesions is not a specific disease, other types of Borna Mia insect infection, A similar disease Mu happen.
In histopathology, the early infection seen in the discredited ball oysters Bonaventura Mia insects (diameter of 2 to 3μm), and accompanied by the intestine, stomach sinusoids and gills, mantle visible dense connective tissue infiltration of local discredited ball , while severe cases cause systemic infection.
Disease pathogenic significance:
The membrane of the pathogen have glycosidic residues with particulate discredited ball (granulocyte) on the glycosylation of the lectin line joining (glycosylation), and by phagocytosis into discredited ball, while oysters Borna Mia insects can inhibit particle of the oxidative burst discredited ball effect (respiratory burst), furthermore discredited ball within phagosomes (phagosome) release lipid membrane embedded in the phagosome formation addicted to expand parasitic vacuoles (parasitophorous vacuole, PV), after phagosome membrane can not be modified with the lysin body (lysosome) combine to form phagocytic lysin body (phagolysosome); Therefore, particulate discredited ball endolysins enzymes secreted by the body is unable to enter the addicted parasitic vacuoles, killing parasites; This pathogen way to avoid being destroyed, so too I Boner Mia insect survival, proliferation, if the host immune resistance strong, you can suppress the proliferation of parasites, but environmental triggers, including temperature, salinity, fishing catch number of bait feeding and chemical contaminants (PCBs. heavy metals, etc.) so that the host immune system decline and increased parasite to multiply and destroy oyster tissue, thereby causing oyster deaths. Diagnosis: An initial diagnosis:
Disease or dying oysters taken gills and heart (ventricles can find the best position) OK smear staining, can be seen in microscopic spherical or ovoid parasites (2 to 5μm), which was basophilic cytoplasm, nuclei showed eosinophilic (color by using stain and have different variations), were detected in the discredited ball outside oyster Bonaventura Mia insects, sometimes visible multicore parasites. Pathogens observed using this method than with histopathological staining observed parasites to be bigger, if the shellfish are infected, the infection occurs in epithelial tissue, so with the heart line smear sheet does not apply to checks infected oyster .
Two initial diagnosis: no application methods.
Three initial diagnosis: no application methods.
A definitive diagnosis:
Incidence of death mainly oyster tissue, showing yellow patchy lesions; severe cases in the gills, mantle and digestive gland connective tissue produces perforated ulcer lesions.
Two confirmed the diagnosis: There is no specific classification of serotype coverage.
Three confirm the diagnosis:
In recent years, both by polymerase chain reaction (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) and in situ hybridization (in situ hybridization, ISH), to determine the parasite infection, such as restriction enzyme cutting coupled with DNA sequences extracted from the parasite, OK RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) ─ PCR analysis, it can be determined Bonaventura oyster parasite infestation Bohemian types. In the electron microscope, one can observe the worm sporophyte (haplosporosomes) and a large number of spheres mitochondrial morphology, the ratio of the nucleus and the cytoplasm to distinguish the insect parasites and other Bonaventura Bohemia (Bonamia spp.) . Usually in the microscope, showing single-core, two-core and multicore plasmodia (plasmodial stage) of the parasite; while intracellular structure including mitochondria, single spore body, Golgi (Golgi apparatus) and persistent nuclear microtubules ( microtubules) structure. If using nucleic acid probes, PCR, in situ hybridization and DNA sequencing and other experimental methods of operation established pathogen, may refer to the OIE Aquatic Animal Diagnostic Manual (Manual of diagnostic of aquatic animals, 2006) within the records, the implementation of operations in sequence identification. Treatment: There is no effective treatment available. Prevention and control methods: May, by breeding methods improved varieties, bred for this disease are resistant to specific oysters, while prohibiting onset zone groups oyster movement; Do not buy a morbidity records oyster farm, when the seed source, reducing stocking density, if possible mobile populations to low temperature waters for oysters, in addition, the use of apparatus management, both prevention Benbingfasheng approach. Related pictures: References: 1.Bachere E, Duramd JL, Tige G. Bonamia ostreae (Pichot et al, . 1979) parasite de I'huitre plate: comparaison de deux methods de diagnostic. Int. Exploit. Mer 1982; 28:1-10.
2.Cavalier-Smith T. Protist phylogeny and th high-level classification of Protozoa. Europ. J. Protistol 2003; 39:338-348.
3.Carnegie RB, Cochennec-Laureau N. Microcell parasites of oysters: Recent insights and future trends. Aquat Living Resoruces. 2004; 17:519-528.
4.OIE. Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. 2006;
Available at URL:
5.Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australis: Identification field guide. 2nd. 2004;
Available at URL:
6.Hine PM The ecology of Bonamia and decline of bivalve molluscs. NZ J. Ecol. 1996; 20 (1) :109-116.
7.Yearsley GK, Last PR, Ward RD. Australian Seafood Handbook: an identification guide to domestic species. CSIRO Marine Research, Australia. 1999;
Available at URL: Reference Links: File Download:

Source: aqua.nvri.gov.tw


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